ocean in the Paleozoic, surrounding Paleolaurentia, Baltica and Siberia.


land mass situated in the most western part of Europe comprising Portugal and Spain. It is part of the Euro-Asian lithospheric plate, which comprises the continents that name it and the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean.


ice fragments, of variable dimensions, that detach from a glacial mass.

Illiteracy Rate

the calculation formula is “population aged 10 years or older that does not know how to read or write / population aged 10 years or over * 100” and the unit of measurement is percentage (%).

Indian Ocean

bathes Africa, Asia, Australia and Antarctica. Has 22% of oceanic waters, occupies about 73 million km2, an average depth of 4 000 m and a maximum one of 9 000 m. This ocean formed when India, together with Madagascar, separated from Antarctica and the western part of Australia (lower Cretaceous).


number of hours of uncovered sun above the horizon.


(see Tool)



rising body of plutonic rock that, still as molten magma, installs within other pre-existing rocks, metamorphosing them.


atoms of the same chemical element that differ by the atomic mass of their nuclei; Carbon 14 (C14) is a radioactive isotope, which spontaneously decays after a certain time.

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